How to Build a Wooden Boat?
Do you ever feel like making something by yourself? There is satisfaction in buying it with your hard-earned money, but the former feeling will unmatch the kind of joy you will get to experience after making that thing on your own.
A wooden boat might be one of those things you could want to build on your own. But there are several steps you need to follow and tools you will need to use before you can cruise around on your boat in the lake. From now onwards, you will get all the details required to build a boat!
Supplies You Need to Build the Boat
Skills or boat making knowledge are not the only things you will need when you make a boat. The material you use and the tools you employ in the building process are just as important as the others. So, you have to be very precise and selective when it comes to the material being used for the procedure.
First of all, you will need a lot of wood to make this boat, so here is the information regarding the number and the size of the pieces of wood.
- For seats, you will need 7 fir cleats, which are (.75 inch by 1.5 inches by 4 feet) and a plywood sheet which is (4 feet by 8 feet by .5 inch), this will also be used for the frames
- You have to buy 4 clear fir stringers, which are (.75 inch by 1.5 inches by 15 feet)
- Get 2 (2 inches by 4 inches by 4 feet) clear fir stern
- For the sides and the bottom of the boat, you need 4 plywood sheets of dimensions (4 feet by 8 feet by .25 inch)
- A fir plank bottom with the dimension of 1 inch by 6 inches by 120 inches
- And finally, you will need an oak rib which is (.75 inch by 2 inches by 13 feet) in dimensions
The wood you have gathered will need to be modified and chopped up so that you end up having 78 different pieces to build the boat.
Alongside the wood, a few other things are going to be required during your DIY job.
Other Materials That You Will Need
- Nails are needed to fix all the wood together. For this, you will need about 750 nails; you could opt for getting more of those because you might end up losing or misplacing a few
- Get 600 to 700 ml of urethane glue.
- Rubber gloves are a must if you want to keep the glue off your hands. The glue is hard to take off, and they leave stains behind
- Epoxy is necessary, so get 6 liters of resin as well as putty
- You need a fiberglass mat along with enough tape for the entire bottom hull of the boat
- Acrylic house paint to color the boat
- Lastly, you have to make templates, so cardboards are the best option
Tools That You Will Need
Now that we are done with all the supplies you need for the boat, we can move on to list down all the tools and devices you will need to complete the job.
- For the job to be easy and pain-free, get two power drills; the cordless ones would be your best bet as the location might not have a power outlet
- 2 wood rasps, a fine and a coarse.
- You can either opt for a hand or a power plane
- To shape over the epoxy, you need a belt sander of 80 grit
- And for the sanding, bring a lot of sandpapers so that you don’t run out of it in the middle of the job
- You should have safety gear on when you build the boat
- For smoothing work for the wood, you need a 120-grit orbital sander
- Cutting objects like knife, a wood saw, a miter saw, and a few chisels
- You will need a lot of clamps to get through this work, around 80 should do the job just fine
- Measuring tools will be needed along with pencils and erasers
- And lastly, painting tools for coloring the boat
You now know all the things you need to prepare and buy before you start building your own boat.
But before you get on it, there are a few things you should keep in mind as this might be your first attempt at doing something like this. Safety is of the utmost importance, so don’t use any of the tools without reading the manual and the instructions. Otherwise, you might end up getting hurt.
Just as it is essential for you to know the use of the tools, you also have to ensure that you have the proper safety gear on when you are doing a few of the tasks. Like you need a respirator, which would prevent you from breathing in the sawdust or the debris from the sanding.
You will also have to wear goggles when you use the saw, drill or sander as the dust could very easily get into your eyes and cause irritation. If you follow the rules, then you will be able to stay away from getting hurt or from hazardous incidents.
Steps of Building a Boat
There is a step by step process you need to follow if you want the result of all your hard to pay off. And you will get to know what the steps are and the best way to do the job for the most fruitful ending.
Step 1: Planning and Designing
Let’s talk about the things that involve planning and designing.
Before you get to the part of actually making the boat, you need some vision or design. Otherwise, you will be confused at every turn. Your confusion will also be clear on the boat itself, and it will not be as well thought out and thus might be unsystematic and a bit of a mess.
The best way to get ahead in the planning process is to look at the other boats and take pictures of the ones you seem to like the most. You could also look for boats on the internet and save pictures of those. If you search google, you’ll find different resources on building a boat.
However, the problem with this method is that you won’t have a live feed on the boat, and that might negatively impact your design.
Once you know all the things that you like and have listed down what you want and what you don’t, the next thing for you to do would be to draw your imagination on a piece of paper.
This is an essential part as by drawing or sketching the boat, you will understand what it might actually end up looking like, so you can make a few adjustments to the design from the very beginning. You should make the drawing as to scale as possible so that at your job is easier when you make the boat.
Making a Template
Before you head out to build it, it would be wise of you to make a full-size mock version of the boat using cardboard. It might be a lot of work, but you will be grateful once you make the template.
It will enable you to see the boat in real life, so if there is something that needs to be changed, you will know before you even start. You will also be able to alter the part of the design if that doesn’t seem as good in real life as they did in your drawing.
Not only will it help in adjustments, but the template will also work as a guide. Fixing mistakes made on the boat is going to be a tough job, so instead, if you use the mock boat to help, you will make much fewer mistakes.
Step 2: Making the Center Rib and Transom
Here’s the guide for making the center rib and transom.
To make the transom, at first, you will have to start by gluing the floorboards together. Then on that, you have to use the template to mark everything out. According to all the marking you have made on the floorboard, you have to use a saw to cut it.
Make sure you don’t make any mistakes with the cuts as any wrong move will result in you having to replace the timber. You do not want to add extra costs. So, try to be as steady and as exact with the cut as possible.
Now, it is in your best favor to clamp the boards together when they are drying so that the process is done without any hindrance. While drying, the urethane will foam up a bit, but there is no need to worry about that, as it is remarkably easy to clean up after it has cured.
The Center Rib
For this part of the boat, you should cut and sand the pieces of wood before you glue them together. Doing that after gluing will not complicate the job, however, doing the prep before will cut down your work time.
Also, you will not only have to glue these pieces together, but you will also have to screw them after you should be ready to cut them out for the chines, the keel, and the inwales.
Step 3: Make the Shape of the Boat
Here’s how you can make the shape of the boat.
The natural curve of the timber or the wood is what gives the boat shape, so when you pick the pieces, you have to be very thoughtful.
Another thing is that the chines and the inwale you made before should come from the same piece of wood. As otherwise, they will not have the same bend or curve to them, which is essential for this work. It will also mean that your work will have a much better flow.
Brackets and Clamps
To proceed further into the boat building process, you have to make use of angular brackets and clamps to replicate the action of the chines and inwales.
Also, temporary thwart and keel will have to be set up on the center rib. Keep in mind that the transom will have to be set at an angle to the keel, which will permit the trimming of the outboard.
Measurements and Mark
Before you actually drill holes for the screws, you must measure everything out because there is no way of taking the hole back.
After all the measuring is done, just take a pencil to mark where the drilling machine is going to hole. If you don’t leave the marks, then you will forget the placement and the alignments. And then you will have to measure all over again.
Gluing It to Place
Once you have a clamp holding together in place, you will be ready to set all the elements together to the transom, stem, and the center rib. You should keel for later and work with the chines and inwales.
The stem plays a vital role here as that is where the chines will meet, along with that, you have to ensure that there is a notch cut out at the bottom where the keel can be placed. And finally, a tie point can be made on the top part of the stem so that you can keep it a bit longer.
Step 4: Complete the Frame of the Boat
Let’s learn about the completion of the frame.
The Placement of the Ribs
When you have the stem, transom, and center rib in place, you can now add all the other ribs to the boat. That is how you will be able to create the actual structure of the boat. But, before putting them anywhere, you will have to make some more measurements and find the right location.
Maintaining the symmetry of the boat is very important; as otherwise on the water, it will not have the right balance and might sink or be very unstable. Thus, each rib has to be shaped individually to fit the frame of the boat.
To make sure you make no mistakes in the cutting and shaping of the timber, you could make a template using some cardboard matching with the keel and the chines. With the three adequately aligned, you can hold it against the wood and mark accordingly.
However, just because you used a temple in the making does not mean it is 100%, a few minor adjustments need to be made, and do not forget to sand the wood.
Finishing the Ribs
Now that you have the ribs cut out shaped, and prepared, you will have to screw and glue them to place. You will need to mark where you want the screws to go for this as well, to avoid making any mistakes.
You have to install two heels in the keel, one of which will be located against the stem and the other one against the transom. And you will finally be able to line the stem on the boat when everything is dry and fixed in place.
At this point, you could also create a decking with the ribs if you want to.
The planks at the bottom of the boat get support from the stringers; they also determine how fast the boat can go. In smaller boats, this is not as important or needed based on the tasks you might perform with a boat this size.
But you still would want to make sure the boat is stable and can support your weight. Also, to avoid fairing, you should cut rebate on the ribs and the keel. After which you should screw and glue the stringers in place.
Step 5: Fairing
For the panels to fit it and complete the whole boat needs a surface, that is what fairing ensures when done right. The surface has to be made from the keel to the chines. You will have to use a sander to make everything as even and flat as possible.
Here, you will have to make use of a rasp so that the outer sides of the ribs match up to the curves of the side panels.
Step 6: Making the Seat Rail, Keel Strip and Sanding and Patching The Boat
By now, your boat should start taking the true form of a boat; you will be delighted to see how far you have come from the design to this step of the process.
The Bottom Plank
At that time, the boat you are making should be placed top side down on a platform of some kind. And the plank at the bottom will poke out, and you will see that it will stick out by about 15-17mm.
That long strip at the bottom has to be screwed to the boat at the keel; the part which has not been affected by the fairing you did in the step before.
Your boat is now ready for the railing of the seats to be put into place. Each of the rails should be about 20mm by 15mm. The railing will also have to be perfectly secured to the transom and the ribs you have glued and screwed into the frame of the boat.
Before proceeding any further with any more of the attachments to the boat, you have the opportunity to go over everything you have done so far. By going over, I mean sand all the timber where is a need for sanding.
Along with sanding the wood, you can also fix and patch all parts of the boat while you have access to every part before the boat has been planked. For the patching, you can use the epoxy putty; your work will be much cleaner.
With all that done, your boat is now ready for more, and soon you will see your design coming to life with your hard work.
Step 7: Attaching the Plywood to the Frame
Here’s how you can attach the plywood to the frame.
Before you start fixing all the plywood to the frame, you should make a rub rail or a gunwale. The piece of timber you use for this has to be about 12mm by 40mm by 3200mm, but if you do not have one as long as that, then you can put two pieces together.
Like you did with the keel, inwale, and the chines, you have to make sure the two pieces you use to make the rub rail are from the timber so that they have the same bend and, therefore, will look more uniform.
Cutting out templates using cardboard will be of great use now, the template will guide you when you actually go to cut the plywood for the planking.
By using the template, you will have the exact measurements which you can use to leave marks on the actual wood; the marks will help make the pieces the exact size.
You will not cut off too much of the wood, if you do that, then you will have to start again with a new one, and this piece will go to waste.
Glue to Place
After you cut and sand each of the pieces required for planking, you are now ready to attach them to your boat. Don’t forget to put a pair of gloves on before you start using the glue as it might leave behind stains, which are hard to remove.
Dot the glue all over the frame of the boat and then use a spatula or any spreading tool to spread the glue all over the surface. Now, you can set the plywood to the boat; to make sure they set in place properly, you have to use a clamp and prevent it from moving.
Fixing the wood to the boat with glue is not enough; you will also have to screw them to place so that there is no chance of them coming off. At first, draw lines along the plywood to mark out where the screws are going to be.
Before drilling the holes for the screw, measure out the distance between each of the screws. With all the marks made, you are now ready to use the drilling machine to poke the holes.
After completing the sides of the boat, you can move to the bottom if the material you bought is the same as the ones recommended here. Then, for the bottom, you will need eight pieces of plywood to do both sides. The larger one will go in the middle while you need three small ones for each end.
Before placing them, you have to make sure the angles of each of the piece are right so that it can easily fit against one another.
If not, then you will have to do some sanding to make the angles right. Hold them flushed with one another and cut off any of the excesses if needed.
Finishing off the Structure
With the bottom and the hull of the boat completed, you are now free to work on the deck; which you will place in the front part of the boat. You will also have to shape the stem’s top to make the whole deck arrangement complete.
You could also add more support to the boat to avoid any accidents or mishaps while you are out in the water. And to do so, add a few quads around the transom, and while you are at it, you should put in heels on each of its corners. Finally, nail and screw everything to place.
About now, you will also have the opportunity to make the area for the tie on top of the stem.
Step 8: Placing the Seats
As for the main boat, most of the work is done; if you have already reached this step, then you must be getting ready to install the seating inside the boat. There will be a couple of things you have to do to make sure the arrangement is made safely and adequately.
The Back Seat
When you are installing the seats at the rear end or the back of the boat, you can use basic seats for the job. As the last rib is attached there, the seats will not need any more support for it to be set in place. The seat will get enough of it from the rib.
The Middle Section
It is not the same case or situation for the middle section, there is no built-in support in this part of the boat for the seating, and thus you will have to build a support that goes from the seat to the chines.
As a form of support, you can install a horizontal pole in the middle of the seat. What this will do is – it will take the added bit of weight so that the piece of wood does not break in the middle, if too much pressure is put on it.
For this one, you will have to work with two pieces of plywood to form a V. This has to be added to the transom on each side. You might have to measure and make adjustments so that it fits in well.
And finally, you will glue the pieces down and hold them together using clamps if needed. Once they have dried, you can screw it all.
Step 9: Adding the Epoxy
Before you planked the boat, you had patched everything up using the epoxy putty. Not only did you do that, but you also sanded down any timber that needed sanding.
What you have to do is to flip the boat upside-down again so that you can work a bit more on the hull.
At first, a layer of fiberglass matt needs to be spread on the surface till it goes all the way up to the side; trim off the excess. If you have some fiberglass tape in hand, then you can stick them to the sides.
Now it is time to apply the epoxy resin mixture on the hull of the boat using a roller or a brush. You have to keep going over it before the fiberglass becomes completely saturated.
After keeping it as it is for a night, the layer should become completely hard. And so, your work on the hull is done as well.
Step 10: Sanding and Painting the Boat
Now after the previous step, you are pretty much done with making the whole boat; all there is left for you to do is sand and paint it perfectly. Again, a reminder that you should have goggles and breathing gear on before you get started with the sanding. And now, we can get started!
Just putting the pieces together is not enough when it comes to boat-building. After the pieces are put in place, you have to make sure the wood is sanded, shaped, and smoothed over properly. Use sanders of 80 and 120-grit for this job, as these will give you the best results.
For the outer portion of the boat, you can use a sander to make the job faster, but the corners on the inside are more challenging to reach with the power tool, so you have to do it with your hands. Now, the whole job might tire you out, so take rests in between.
If you want, you could paint the boat with a coat of house paint before you start sanding as it will help to make your task easier and much faster. It will also work as a kind of base coat for the actual paint.
Which color you want to choose for your boat entirely depends on your taste and preference. But be sure to use the right type of paint for the wooden boat and do not forget the paint primer, which will help the color stay on the boat longer.
For the paint job to cure fully, you have to give it about two whole weeks, especially if you are giving your boat a few coats of paint before you take it out to the water.
Step 11: Out in the Water
Even though your boat by now is absolutely ready to be taken to the water, but you should still test to see if it passes the float test. If you have a swimming pool at home, then that would be the perfect place to try this; if not, you could test out in a pond nearby.
Now, when you take it out to the water, just monitor it for a bit before you get inside. Also, for a boat this size, no more than two adults should get on as it is quite lightweight, and too much weight inside might lead to instability. Do not take the risk if you do not know how to swim.
At last, when you get on the boat you built yourself, you are bound to be happy and proud of all the hard work and hours of dedication you put into it.
Building a boat is in no way an easy task, by reading the article you will have a better understanding of what you have to do and how you must execute each of the steps. But before you start building your own boat, you should consult with someone who is more experienced. You can also get help from different boat building resources.
You will need all the help you can get!